By Kevin Dougherty. This was typical of armies marching through enemy territory in the Civil War. He instructed his men to burn all military facilities. In October an attack on the river craft Catahoula compelled Sherman to intensify retaliating against wrongdoers. Show them no mercy and if the people don’t suppress guerrillas, tell them your orders are to treat the community as enemies.”, In January, while on a trip down the Mississippi to investigate another river attack, he heatedly wrote: “For every bullet shot at a steamboat, I would shoot a thousand [cannons into every] hapless town on Red, Ouachita, Yazoo [Rivers], or wherever a boat can float or soldiers march.” Four days later he ordered Brigadier General A.J. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law. Just after the fall of Vicksburg, while in Jackson for the second time, Sherman conducted a campaign of destruction to render the city unusable to the Confederate army. Sherman invaded Georgia in the spring of 1864. Officers' row, ca. Only a few days later, on May 17, this band of Kiowas perpetrated the Warren Wagontrain Raid near the spot where it had observed but failed to attack Sherman's entourage. contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. Instead, he wanted to remove any militarily beneficial materials from the city and rid the area of any Confederate troops, thus protecting himself from a rear attack while he moved on Vicksburg. When Grant was promoted to command all Union armies in the field and left for the Eastern Theater, he put Sherman in charge of the Military Division of Mississippi in the Western Theater. Meridian Campaign “Sherman’s March to the Sea” from Atlanta to the seaport town of Savannah was intended, as Sherman said, “to make Georgia Howl.”  For weeks, he and his army virtually disappeared from the War Department’s view. He fought a series of battles against Joseph Johnston‘s Confederate army in the mountains of North Georgia and continually sought to outflank his opponent—except at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies (Washington: Department of the Navy, 1894–1927). It is time they should feel the presence of war on our side.”. On the eve of his foray into Mississippi, Sherman sent a lengthy announcement to Major R.M. His younger brother John served in the U.S. Senate. For the remainder of the conflict, the Union army sought to strike at all Southern resources and infrastructure, hoping to destroy the Confederacy’s ability and will to keep fighting. A Controversial Question: Were Fears of China Justified? The Civil War campaign began on 11/15/64 when Sherman 's troops marched from the captured city of Atlanta, Georgia and ended at the port of Savannah on 12/22/1864. He handed out harsh punishment to soldiers who did as little as steal fence rails for their campfires or take liberally from the countryside. The Union commander, General William Sherman, also believed a sustained campaign deep into Confederate territory would bring the entire war to an end. A Were they justified? He is best known for his actions in the Civil War, where his performance was mixed. After retaking Jackson in the summer of 1863 after the fall of Vicksburg, Sherman had thought about moving down the railroad track toward Meridian, a small town of about four hundred people, located about one hundred miles east of Jackson near the Alabama border. Sherman did not develop his style of warfare in a week or even a year. Sherman’s march from Vicksburg to Meridian, Mississippi, in early 1864 is relatively unknown, although publications discussing “hard war,” “total war,” or modern warfare sometimes mention this campaign. Sherman understood that by not having to guard a supply or communications line, he could free the men previously used to protect that line for use on the battlefield. Grant believed that the Alabama city could provide an excellent base for his operations into the Confederate states farther east, where he could hit some of the South’s manufacturing and supply sectors. After President Grant was inaugurated, Sherman was elevated to general, on March 4, 1869, and named commanding general of the army four days later, a rank that he held until November 1, 1883. He turned his army north through the Carolinas, and if anything the destruction they wrought topped that in Georgia. The club hosted some distinguished guests and performers including Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman, and "Buffalo Bill" William Cody. We at that time were restrained, tied to a deep-seated reverence for law and property. “All the people are now guerrillas,” he wrote angrily to Grant, “and they have a perfect understanding” of the impact their raids had on Union operations. There, Sherman impatiently ordered a frontal assault that cost him 3,000 men, while the Confederates lost only 1,000. Governor Pettus quickly began to acquire arms and supplies for the large number of volunteers coming into the state army. "I have seen not a trace of an Indian thus far and only hear the stories of the people, which indicates that whatever Indians there be only come to Texas to steal horses," he wrote to Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds, commander of the Department of Texas. . Background . The real enemies, he thought, were those citizens who supported the Confederate forces. While Sherman was in Memphis in 1862 and 1863, guarding the important river town and the Mississippi River, he battled constantly with guerrilla and Confederate cavalry units operating in Mississippi and Tennessee. His father was a justice of the Ohio Supreme Court. Dan Bullock died at age 15 in 1969 and efforts to recognize the young African-American Marine continue and are highlighted in this Military Times documentary. Font size: As early as August 1863, Sherman had begun to make plans for a move against Meridian. He needed to capture Atlanta in order to reach the port cities on the coast. This article was written by Buck T. Foster and originally published in the Summer 2007 issue of MHQ Magazine. Sherman was not the only Union general moving away from the conciliatory stance. Take freely the [supplies and animals] of the hostile and indifferent inhabitants,” and inform them that if “they permit their country to be used by the public enemy they must bear the expense of the troops sent to expel them.”. His older brother Charles became a federal judge. It consisted of about 100,000 soldiers who were d… A great number of the thirty thousand paroled troops from Vicksburg had entered into partisan and regular service throughout the state, enhancing the number of enemy troops already there. He remarked to Halleck that within a radius of fifteen miles from his principal position, “everything of subsistence of man or beast has been appropriated for the use of our army.” Grant later commented in his memoirs, “I was amazed at the quantity of supplies the country afforded. His siblings all enjoyed professional success. Our line of historical magazines includes America's Civil War, American History, Aviation History, Civil War Times, Military History, MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vietnam, Wild West and World War II. His father was a justice of the Ohio Supreme Court. When the smoke cleared, the southerners who had survived the onslaught came out of hiding. accessed January 10, 2021, I found a couple of newspaper articles from December 1861 with the headline "Gen. William T. Sherman Insane." John M. Carroll, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979). General William Tecumseh Sherman once said of war, "It is all hell, boys." Sherman would continue to issue orders in an attempt to keep his troops from outright pillaging as they marched through the South, but the private property of Southern civilians was now in peril of Federal confiscation or destruction if deemed profitable for Confederate use—or useful to the Union. He was surprised to observe that his army lived well from what they found on northern Mississippi’s farms. “Let the people know and feel that we deeply deplore the necessity of such destruction, but must protect ourselves and the boats,” he told his subordinate. His comments about guerrillas implied condemnation of their style of warfare. His last battle was Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19–21, 1865. General Order 100 only served to further outline what General Orders 107 and 108 had defined in 1862. In 1840 Sherman graduated from the U.S. Military Academy near the top of his class. ... Pfc. [cat totalposts=’21’ offset=’0′ category=’1170′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’21’ offset=’21’ category=’1170′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], Union General William T. Sherman (National Archives), VIDEO: Battery H Of The 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery At Gettysburg, Dan Bullock: The youngest American killed in the Vietnam War. He believed that it was better to attack and destroy materiel than citizens. Although recent works have rightfully concluded that Sherman was not the first general to promote a harsher attitude toward civilians, he nevertheless moved war in that direction to a far greater degree than any of his contemporaries. These were not hollow threats. He argued, therefore, that since the Southern population’s “provisions, forage, horses, mules, [and] wagons” went to the enemy’s army, “it [was] clearly our duty and right to take them, because otherwise they might be used against us.”. Sherman's corps helped to raise the siege of Chattanooga, and with Grant's promotion to general in chief of the United States armies, Sherman was promoted to commander of the Division of Mississippi on March 18, 1864, and to major general on August 12, 1864. 6:16. A When Confederate cavalry destroyed Grant’s main supply depot at Holly Springs, Mississippi, and damaged the Mobile and Ohio Railroad in Tennessee, Grant’s army subsisted mainly on food and forage the soldiers gathered from farms along the railroad. This story is adapted from his book Sherman’s Mississippi Campaign (University of Alabama Press, 2006). At one point, when asked a question about “good Indians,” he responded that, “The only good Indians I ever saw were dead,” which became, “The only good Indian is a dead Indian” in popular vernacular. William Tecumseh Sherman, (born February 8, 1820, Lancaster, Ohio, U.S.—died February 14, 1891, New York, New York), American Civil War general and a major architect of modern warfare. Its importance rested more in its impact on Sherman’s evolving policy toward Southern civilians and the Union strategy to win the war than on immediate military ramifications in Mississippi. At stake was Atlanta, major manufacturing center and railroad hub. The principle has been more and more acknowledged that the unarmed citizen is to be spared in person, property, and honor as much as the exigencies of war will admit.” The key factor was war necessity, and as Article 28 pointed out, there was also a right of retaliation. Pettus and the other government officials worked in safety during the first two years of the war. Another of Sherman’s quotations is, “If nominated (for president), I will not run. William T. Sherman to Ranald Mackenzie, May 1871. Sherman did not like the idea put forth by General Orders 107 and 108. Commanding general William T. Sherman concluded that "the huts in which our troops are forced to live are in some places inferior to what horses usually have." “No goths or vandals ever had less respect for the lives [and] property of friends and foes.”, Sherman thought these types of infractions were detrimental to the Union cause. Sherman began to view Southern citizens differently, especially when they lived in areas where the guerrillas frequently operated. Dictionary of American Biography. On September 6, 1853, Sherman resigned from the army to pursue the banking business in San Francisco. In the latter part of 1863, Sherman had learned about a series of town meetings and petitions all across the state “to consider the question of abandoning the Confederacy.” Although he had initially dismissed the reports as nonsense, he still believed that some in the region were growing tired of the conflict. His younger brother John served in the U.S. Senate. Grant sent letters to President Abraham Lincoln’s general in chief, Henry W. Halleck, on several occasions in July and August, suggesting an attack on Mobile. Grant continued to order the region around Vicksburg stripped “to prevent an army coming this way from supplying itself.” He sent Sherman back to Jackson after the fall of Vicksburg to retake the city from General Joseph Johnston’s army, which had reoccupied the capital. (After Civil War, named General of the Army of the United States), First Battle of Bull Run General William Tecumseh Sherman is probably best remembered for his spectacular 1864 “March to the Sea” in which he stormed 225 miles through Georgia with no line of communication in a Union campaign to take the American Civil War to the Confederate population. While Hattaway and Jones describe the changing Federal strategy and Grimsley notes how Federal attitudes toward Southern civilians modified during the war, they do not create a complete picture of Sherman’s campaign. Similarly, Sherman biographies give this campaign little attention. It is all hell.”. They attacked isolated Federal garrisons and scattered their soldiers. 1871. “If planters remain at home and behave themselves, molest them as little as possible,” Sherman cautioned, “but if the planters abandon their plantations you may infer they are hostile, and can take their cattle, hogs, corn, or anything you need.” He ordered Steele to consider any cotton, except that marked with “C.S.,” as private property and leave it unmolested. Sherman agreed with Jomini that noncombatants should be treated differently than soldiers. Thomas W. Cutrer, 15 (series 1865) were military orders issued during the American Civil War, on January 16, 1865, by General William Tecumseh Sherman, commander of the Military Division of the Mississippi of the United States Army. General William Tecumseh Sherman summary: William Tecumseh Sherman began his Civil War career as a Colonel of the 13th U.S. Infantry Regiment and ended his career as the commanding general of the United States Army. For more information go to: In the winter of 1914, the only surviving son of William Tecumseh Sherman, the Civil War general who fought for the Union and burned Atlanta, unexpectedly showed up at the offices of America. Because of the partisans’ menace to Union depots, communications, and supply lines, coupled with the Confederate populace’s support of these raiders, Sherman developed a harsher, more encompassing policy toward Southern civilians. Two of the best examples are Herman Hattaway and Archer Jones’ How the North Won the War (1983) and Mark Grimsley’s The Hard Hand of War (1995). Abandoning his supply lines, however, was an innovative idea. Sherman intended to cut Mississippi from the eastern section of the Confederacy, much like Grant had isolated the Trans-Mississippi with his own victory at Vicksburg and General Nathaniel Banks’ capture of Port Hudson. Bruce Catton, This Hallowed Ground (New York: Pocket Books, 1956). They also waged psychological warfare, intent on quashing any hope the people in central Mississippi might have had of a Southern victory. Originally called Camp San Saba, some of the fort's brick buildings “ which were abandoned in the 1880s – have been restored to what Gen. William T. Sherman once proclaimed “the prettiest post in Texas.” Luckenbach That winter and spring, during the campaign to take the Mississippi River fortress, Sherman learned another important lesson that would prove extremely valuable in his later campaigns—and would change the way that he would conduct war against the Confederacy. Sherman and his longtime adversary, Joe Johnston, met to discuss terms. In early May, 1864, Federal forces under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman began battling the Confederate Army of Tennessee. After exhausting all conventional methods for dealing with these threats, he began to strike at the local Southern towns, which he considered the supply bases for the Confederates. Extensive Comanche and Kiowa raids along the West Texas frontier brought Sherman on a personal tour of inspection in May 1871. For example, John F. Marszalek’s Sherman: A Soldier’s Passion for Order (1993) devotes only five pages to it, while Michael Fellman’s Citizen Sherman (1995), Stanley P. Hirchson’s The White Tecumseh (1997), and Lee B. Kennett’s Sherman: A Soldier’s Life (2001) barely mention it. Although he experienced limited success with this tactic, Sherman believed that the key to protecting the Mississippi, a major key to Union victory, was to strike at Confederate resources in the Magnolia State. His father died while William was still a boy and after his father’s death, he was raised by a family friend, attorney Thomas Ewing. Halleck thought Texas was a more important target, so he did not provide Grant with the approval he wished. In Jackson, he had changed his view concerning private citizens and their property. Handbook of Texas Online, After three subsequent guerrilla attacks along the river, he sent several families out of the city beyond Union lines. He hoped to move across Mississippi as soon as his men were rested and the cool fall weather had arrived. He continued to insist that, although it was not his policy to destroy the farmers and their farms, those who resided in the areas around partisan troop activity were “accessories by their presence and inactivity to prevent murders and destruction of property.” Therefore, they should properly expect just retribution. Roughly seven months after the fall of Vicksburg, Major General William Tecumseh Sherman took his army across central Mississippi, intent on undermining that region’s ability to wage war. Sherman entered the U.S. military academy at age 16. Chattanooga Campaign He had heard news about the reconcentration of Confederate forces in the Magnolia State and had become intent on ridding Mississippi of enemy forces before his expected spring campaign eastward into Georgia. To free up thousands of garrisoning troops along the Mississippi, discourage guerrilla raids, and remove valuable military resources from Confederate grasp, Sherman would burn, confiscate, and destroy corn, hams, railroads, depots, warehouses, and any other items that might aid the enemy’s cause. He believed that the Federal government should deal with each sector of the population and the rebellion as a whole. His “bummers” became notorious for their ability to strip the land of valuable goods, and Southerners greatly abhorred them. If the Confederate troops could not find supplies, they could not remain a threat to the river. He had many Southern friends and thus had an attachment to the South and its people. Mexican Dictator (1834) whom seized power in Mexico City, favored a centralized, authoriarian government dominated by the military. In this lesson, we will discuss General William T. Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, which took place throughout the spring and summer of 1864. Sawyer in Alabama and instructed him to read the message to the civilians there “so as to prepare them for my coming.” He wrote that in European conflicts, from which the United States had obtained its principles of war, the people had remained neutral and had been free to sell their goods to either combatant. In the wake of his successful campaign to capture Atlanta, Major General William T. Sherman began making plans for a march against Savannah. With Ewing's influence, Sherman was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point on July 1, 1836; he graduated sixth in his class and received a commission as a second lieutenant in the Third Artillery in Florida on July 1, 1840. 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